Standards and expectations
The standards of joint replacement have by en large been dictated by Western research and literature that generally predict a specific body type and requirement for anatomical restoration. Modern day Asian surgeons who were trained in the West, however, realise that Asian patients are quite different. There is a tendency for increased femoral and tibial bowing and this results in unusual strains on implants designed for a Western individual. Furthermore, Asian patients tend to have a greater requirement for deep flexion for squatting.